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How tyre rubber works

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Add to Flipboard Magazine. Fuente: racecar-engineering - View all news from this site
How tyre rubber works How tyre rubber works

How tyre rubber works






The viscoelastic nature of tyre rubber is why tyre performance is so difficult to manage. Let’s find out why.
CREDIT: XPB

The reason why tyres exhibit such unpredictable behaviour is because they are made of rubber which is a viscoelastic material. To get our heads round this we first need to understand elastic and viscous materials. 
Elastic material 
Elastic materials deform linearly when a load is applied. Once this load is removed it returns back to its original shape. A good example is a spring; when you push it, the spring compresses and when you let go, it expands back to its original length. The harder you push the spring, the more it compresses, therefore the displacement is proportional to the applied force. By applying a cycle of compression and extension forces to the spring and plotting the results we can see below that the displacement (yellow) is in phase with the force (red). 
Michelin. (2001). The Tyre – Grip. [Online]. Available at: http://www.dimnp.unipi.it/guiggiani-m/Michelin_Tire_Grip.pdf (Accessed 28/11/19)

Viscous material
A viscous material deforms at a constant rate when load is applied and does not return back to its original shape once the load is removed. A good way to think about this is a piston moving through oil. As you push the piston, the viscosity of the oil resists the piston, so the harder you push, the greater this resistance. When you let go, the resistance in the oil will push the piston back, but not to its original position. This is because the resistance in the oil has converted some of the energy you used to push the piston into heat, therefore there is an energy loss so the piston doesn’t return to its original position. The displacement lags behind the applied force and so is out of phase which we can see from the displacement (yellow) vs force (red) graph below. This lag is known as hysteresis.
Michelin. (2001). The Tyre – Grip. [Online]. Available at: http://www.dimnp.unipi.it/guiggiani-m/Michelin_Tire_Grip.pdf (Accessed 28/11/19)

Viscoelastic material
A viscoelastic material is a combination of elastic deformation, which is recoverable, and viscous deformation, which is permanent. So it does return to its original shape, but only after a period of time. A viscoelastic material can be thought of as a spring and piston assembly. So when you push the piston the viscosity in the oil resists displacement, which generates heat, and when you let go this resistance pushes the piston back, but not to its original position. The spring then takes over and its elastic behaviour extends the piston back to its original position.
Once again, the displacement is out of phase with the applied force, but to a much less extent than a viscous material, and this delay results in an energy loss in the form of heat. 
Michelin. (2001). The Tyre – Grip. [Online]. Available at: http://www.dimnp.unipi.it/guiggiani-m/Mic...
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Source of news: racecar-engineering
Source of publication: 28-11-2019 21:38
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